- Abel, Niels Henrik, Norwegian mathematician
- Achenwall, Gottfried, German statistician and political scientis
- Alembert, Jean le Rond d', French mathematician and philosopher
- Al-Khowarizmi, Arab mathematician
- Apollonius of Perga, Greek mathematician of the Alexandrian school
- Archimedes, Greek mathematician
- Babbage, Charles, English mathematician and inventor
- Banach, Stefan, Polish mathematician
- Banu Musa, family of Arab mathematicians and astronomers
- Barrow, Isaac, English mathematician and theologian
- Beltrami, Eugenio, Italian mathematician
- Benedetti, Giovanni Battista, Italian mathematician and physicist
- Bernoulli, family of mathematicians and scientists
- Bhaskara, Indian mathematician and astronomer
- Birkhoff, Garrett, American mathematician
- Birkhoff, George David, American mathematician
- Bolyai, family of Hungarian mathematicians
- Bolzano, Bernard, Czech philosopher
- Boole, George, English mathematician and logician
- Briggs, Henry, English mathematician
- Calderón, Alberto, Argentine mathematician
- Cantor, Georg, German mathematician
- Cardano, Geronimo, Italian physician and mathematician
- Cartan, Élie Joseph, French mathematician
- Cauchy, Augustin Louis, Baron, French mathematician
- Cavalieri, Francesco Bonaventura, Italian mathematician
- Cayley, Arthur, English mathematician
- Chern, Shiing-Shen, Chinese-American mathematician
- Ch'in Chiu-shao, Chinese mathematician
- Chu Shih-chieh, Chinese mathematician
- Chuquet, Nicolas, French mathematician
- Cournot, Antoine Augustin, French mathematician and economist
- De Morgan, Augustus, English mathematician and logician
- Dedekind, Julius Wilhelm Richard, French mathematician
- Dee, John, German mathematician
- Desargues, Gérard, French mathematician and engineer
- Descartes, René, French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist
- Dickson, Leonard Eugene, American mathematician
- Diophantus, Greek algebraist
- Erdös, Paul, Hungarian mathematician
- Euclid, Greek mathematician
- Euler, Leonhard, Swiss mathematician
- Fermat, Pierre de, French mathematician
- Fibonacci, Leonardo, French mathematician
- Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer, English statistician and geneticist
- Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer, English statistician and geneticist
- Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph, Baron, French mathematician and physicist
- Frege, Gottlob, German philosopher and mathematician
- Gödel, Kurt, American mathematician and logician
- Galileo, Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist
- Gallup, George Horace, American public opinion statistician, originator of the Gallup poll
- Galois, Évariste, French mathematician
- Gauss, Carl Friedrich, German mathematician
- Germain, Sophie, French mathematician
- Grassmann, Hermann Günther, American mathematician and logician
- Gunter, Edmund, English mathematician and astronomer
- Habash al-Hasib, Arab mathematician and astronomer
- Hamilton, Sir William Rowan, Irish mathematician and astronomer
- Harriot, Thomas, English mathematician and astronomer
- Hermite, Charles, French mathematician
- Heron of Alexandria, Greek mathematician
- Hilbert, David, German mathematician
- Ibn al-Haytham, Arab mathematician
- Jeans, Sir James Hopwood, English mathematician, physicist, and astronomer
- Kakutani, Shizuo, Japanese mathematician
- Kelvin, William Thomson, 1st Baron, British mathematician and physicist
- Klein, Christian Felix, German mathematician
- Knuth, Donald Ervin, American mathematician and computer scientist
- Kovalevsky, Sonya, Russian mathematician
- Kronecker, Leopold, German mathematician
- Lagrange, Joseph Louis, Comte, French mathematician and astronomer
- Legendre, Adrien Marie, French mathematician
- Levi-Civita, Tullio, Italian mathematician
- Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich, Russian mathematician
- Möbius, Augustus Ferdinand, German mathematician and astronomer
- Maclaurin, Colin, Scottish mathematician and natural philosopher
- Mandelbrot, Benoit B., French mathematician
- Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de, French mathematician and astronomer
- Mayer, Johan Tobias, American mathematician
- Mayo-Smith, Richmond, American statistician
- Mittag-Leffler, Magnus Gösta, Swedish mathematician
- Moivre, Abraham de, French-English mathematician
- Monge, Gaspard, comte de Péluse, French mathematician
- Napier, John, Scottish mathematician
- Nash, John Forbes, Jr., American mathematician
- Newton, Sir Isaac, English mathematician and natural philosopher (physicist)
- Nunes, Pedro, Portuguese mathematician
- Painlevé, Paul, French statesman and mathematician
- Pappus, Greek mathematician
- Pascal, Blaise, French scientist and religious philosopher
- Petty, Sir William, English statistician and physician
- Plücker, Julius, German mathematician and physicist
- Poincaré, Jules Henri, French mathematician
- Poisson, Siméon Denis, French mathematician and physicist
- Poncelet, Jean Victor, French mathematician and army engineer
- Quetelet, Adolphe, Belgian statistician and astronomer
- Ramanujan, Srinivasa, Indian mathematician
- Riemann, Georg Friedrich Bernhard, German mathematician
- Russell, Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3d Earl, British philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer
- Shannon, Claude, American applied mathematician
- Steiner, Jakob, Swiss mathematician
- Sylvester, James Joseph, English mathematician
- Tartaglia, Niccolò, Italian engineer and mathematician
- Taylor, Brook, English mathematician
- Turing, Alan Mathison, British mathematician and computer theorist
- Viète, François, French mathematician
- Von Neumann, John, American mathematician
- Wallis, John, English mathematician
- Weierstrass, Karl Wilhelm Theodor, German mathematician
- Whitehead, Alfred North, English mathematician and philosopher
- Wiener, Norbert, American mathematician, educator, and founder of the field of cybernetics,
- Wright, Carroll Davidson, American statistician
- Zygmund, Antoni, Polish-American mathematician