G

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
galvanize
The process of covering iron with a coat of zinc to make it less reactive to air and water.
galvanometer
A device that is very sensitive and able to detect even small flows of electrons through a wire.
gas
The least dense state of matter.
gas chromatography
An analytical chemistry technique in which a sample is vaporized and passed through a column whose walls are covered with a sticky organic solvent; different chemicals in the sample have different affinities for the solvent and separate as they pass through the column.
gasohol
A mixture of 90% gasoline and 10% ethyl alcohol that is used as an automotive fuel.
gasoline
A volatile, flammable, liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, obtained from petroleum, and used as fuel for internal-combustion engines.
gel
A colloid in which the dispersed phase has combined with the continuous phase to produce a semisolid material as a jelly; a colloid formed by coagulation of a sol.
gene
The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position on a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional product (i.e., a protein or RNA molecule).
glucose
A 6-carbon sugar that plays a major role in cell metabolism.
glycogen
A polysaccharide the body uses for energy storage; it is made up of chains of glucose molecules. When the body has depleted the free glucose in the blood, the liver breaks down glycogen into more glucose.
glycolipid
A lipid covalently linked to a sugar or polysaccharide. These biomolecules are important parts of animal cell membranes.
glycolysis
A complex biochemical process in which one molecule of glucose is anaerobically converted into two molecules of pyruvate and energy in the form of ATP.
gram
The basic unit of mass in the metric system.
graphite
The most stable allotrope, or form of carbon, having a hexagonal type linking of atoms with relatively strong bonds to 3 neighboring carbon atoms, and a much weaker bond to a fourth carbon atom.
group
A vertical column in the periodic table.

Glossary created by David Shaw (Madison Area Technical College) for The Chemistry Place.

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