Albania

Republic of Albania

President: Bujar Nishani (2011)

Prime Minister: Edi Rama (2013)

Land area: 10,579 sq mi (27,400 sq km); total area: 11,100 sq mi (28,748 sq km)

Population (2014 est.): 3,020,209 (growth rate: 0.3%); birth rate: 12.73/1000; infant mortality rate: 13.19/1000; life expectancy: 77.96; density per sq mi: 272

Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Tirana, 419,000

Other large cities: Durres, 113,900; Elbasan, 97,000

Monetary unit: Lek

National name: Republika e Shqiperise

Current government officials

Languages: Albanian 98.8% (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Roma, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and Serbo-Croatian), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)

Ethnicity/race: Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Macedonian, Montenegrin, and Egyptian), unspecified 15.5% (2011 est.)

Religions: Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2% (2011 est.)

National Holiday: Independence Day, November 28

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Literacy rate: 98.7% (2011 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $12.8 billion; per capita $10,700. Real growth rate: .7% (2013 est.). Inflation: 1.7% (2013 est.). Unemployment: 16.9% official rate (2013 est.). Note: These are official rates that may not include those working at near-subsistence farming. Arable land: 21.63% (2011). Agriculture: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products. Labor force: 1,098,000; agriculture 54.%, industry 12.8%, services 32.6% (2012 est.). Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower. Exports: $2.323 billion (2013 est.): textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco. Imports: $2.1 billion (2012 est.): machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals. Major trading partners: Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Germany, China.

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 312,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 3.5 million (2012). Radio broadcast stations: 2 public, 25 private (2012). Television broadcast stations: 3 public, 60+ private (2010). Internet hosts: 15,528 (2012). Internet users: 1,300,000 (2011).

Transportation: Railways: total: 339 km (2011). Highways: total: 18,000 km; paved: 7,020 km; unpaved: 10,980 km (2011). Waterways: 41 km (2011). Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore. Airports: 4 (2013).

International disputes: The Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; the mass emigration of unemployed Albanians remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy

Major sources and definitions

Flag of Albania

Geography

Albania is situated on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea, with Montenegro and Serbia to the north, Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south. Slightly larger than Maryland, Albania is composed of two major regions: a mountainous highland region (north, east, and south) constituting 70% of the land area, and a western coastal lowland region that contains nearly all of the country's agricultural land and is the most densely populated part of Albania.

Government

Emerging democracy.

History

A part of Illyria in ancient times and later of the Roman Empire, Albania was ruled by the Byzantine Empire from 535 to 1204. An alliance (1444–1466) of Albanian chiefs failed to halt the advance of the Ottoman Turks, and the country remained under at least nominal Turkish rule for more than four centuries, until it proclaimed its independence on Nov. 28, 1912.

Largely agricultural, Albania is one of the poorest countries in Europe. A battlefield in World War I, after the war it became a republic in which a conservative Muslim landlord, Ahmed Zogu, proclaimed himself president in 1925 and king (Zog I) in 1928. He ruled until Italy annexed Albania in 1939. Communist guerrillas under Enver Hoxha seized power in 1944, near the end of World War II. Hoxha was a devotee of Stalin, emulating the Soviet leader's repressive tactics, imprisoning or executing landowners and others who did not conform to the socialist ideal. Hoxha eventually broke with Soviet communism in 1961 because of differences with Khrushchev and then aligned himself with Chinese communism, which he also abandoned in 1978 after the death of Mao. From then on Albania went its own way to forge its individual version of the socialist state and became one of the most isolated—and economically underdeveloped—countries in the world. Hoxha was succeeded by Ramiz Alia in 1982.

Moving Toward Democracy

Elections in March 1991 gave the Communists a decisive majority. But a general strike and street demonstrations soon forced the all-Communist cabinet to resign. In June 1991, the Communist Party of Labor renamed itself the Socialist Party and renounced its past ideology. The opposition Democratic Party won a landslide victory in the 1992 elections, and Sali Berisha, a former cardiologist, became Albania's first elected president. The following year, ex-Communists, including Ramiz Alia and former prime minister Fatos Nano, were imprisoned on corruption charges.

But Albania's experiment with democratic reform and a free-market economy went disastrously awry in March 1997, when large numbers of its citizens invested in shady get-rich-quick pyramid schemes. When five of these schemes collapsed in the beginning of the year, robbing Albanians of an estimated $1.2 billion in savings, Albanians' rage turned against the government, which appeared to have sanctioned the nationwide swindle. Rioting broke out, the country's fragile infrastructure collapsed, and gangsters and rebels overran the country, plunging it into virtual anarchy. A multinational protection force eventually restored order and set up the elections that formally ousted President Sali Berisha.

In spring 1999, Albania was heavily involved in the affairs of its fellow ethnic Albanians to the north, in Kosovo. Albania served as an outpost for NATO troops and took in approximately 440,000 Kosovar refugees, about half the total number of ethnic Albanians who were driven from their homes in Kosovo.

Political Infighting Stalls Progress

Ilir Meta, elected prime minister in 1999, rapidly moved forward in his first years to modernize the economy, privatize business, fight crime, and reform the judiciary and tax systems. He resigned in Jan. 2002, frustrated by political infighting. In June 2002, former general Alfred Moisiu was elected president, endorsed by both the Socialists (headed by Fatos Nano) and the Democrats (led by Sali Berisha), in an effort to end the unproductive political fractiousness that has stalemated the government. The political duel between Nano and Berisha continued, however, and little improvement was evident in the standard of living for Albanians. In 2005 elections, Berisha replaced Nano, who had been appointed by Moisiu in 2002 as prime minister.

Bamir Topi, a scientist and senior member of Berisha's Democratic Party, was elected president by parliament in July 2007.

Albania joined NATO in May 2009 and later in the month applied for membership in the European Union.

In July 2009's elections, the closest since 1990, Berisha's center-right coalition narrowly defeated the opposition socialists, who were led by Edi Rama. The opposition disputed the results and accused Berisha of voter intimidation.

At Last a New Albanian President Is Elected

After three failed attempts to elect a president, the parliament finally succeeded on June 11, 2012, when Interior Minister Bujar Nishani was elected with 73 votes of the 140 seats. Flamur Noka was named new interior minister and Edmond Panariti became foreign minister.

Sali Berisha, prime minister since 2005, was defeated in his third bid for the office. General elections held on June 23, 2013, resulted in victory for Edi Rama and his opposition Socialist Party, 53% to 36%. Berisha conceded defeat and announced his intention to step down from leadership of the Democratic Party, while Rama celebrated his victory and reiterated his goal to secure EU membership for Albania.

See also Encyclopedia: Albania.
U.S. State Dept. Country Notes: Albania
Institute of Statistics www.instat.gov.al


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