King Henry VIII of England's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed and Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.
The great baroque composer Johann Sebastian Bach died.
Robespierre, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine.
Peru declared its independence from Spain.
The 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which established the citizenship of African Americans and guaranteed due process of law, was ratified.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, precipitating the start of World War I.
Herbert Hoover ordered Douglas MacArthur to evict the Bonus Marchers from their camps.
Nine Pennsylvania coal miners were rescued after 77 hours of being trapped in a mine shaft.