July 28

1540

King Henry VIII of England's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed and Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.

1750

The great baroque composer Johann Sebastian Bach died.

1794

Robespierre, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution, was sent to the guillotine.

1821

Peru declared its independence from Spain.

1868

The 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which established the citizenship of African Americans and guaranteed due process of law, was ratified.

1914

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, precipitating the start of World War I.

1932

Herbert Hoover ordered Douglas MacArthur to evict the Bonus Marchers from their camps.

2002

Nine Pennsylvania coal miners were rescued after 77 hours of being trapped in a mine shaft.

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