Polish patriot and American Revolutionary War commander Casimir Pulaski was killed in the battle of Savannah.
The Boer War began in South Africa.
English nurse Edith Cavell was executed by the Germans.
A letter from Albert Einstein was delivered to President Franklin D. Roosevelt concerning the possibility of atomic weapons.
The first session of Vatican II was convened by Pope John XXIII.
The first staffed Apollo mission, Apollo 7, was launched with astronauts Wally Schirra, Donn Fulton Eisele, and R. Walter Cunningham aboard.
Space shuttle Challenger astronaut, Kathryn Sullivan, became the first American woman to walk in space.