French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte began their retreat from Moscow.
The United States imposes a partial embargo on goods exported to Cuba.
The Senate passed a bill (78–22) making Martin Luther King, Jr.'s, birthday a public holiday.
The stock market crashed on what came to be known as "Black Monday." Stocks dropped a record 508 points, or 22.6%, topping the drops on October 28 and 29 in 1929 that ushered in the Great Depression.