Nathan Hale was hanged by the British as a spy during the Revolutionary War.
Congress authorized the office of Postmaster-General.
The French Republic was proclaimed.
President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, proposing to free all slaves of rebel states as of Jan. 1, 1863.
The Persian Gulf conflict between Iran and Iraq erupted into full-scale war.
Songwriter Irving Berlin died in New York City at age 101.