Councils

Ecumenical Councils. There are twenty-one recognised, nine Eastern and twelve Western. THE NINE EASTERN: (1) Jerusalem; (2 and 8) Nice, 325, 787; (3, 6, 7, 9) Constantinople, 381, 553, 680, 869; (4) Ephesus, 431; (5) Chalcedon, 451.

THE TWELVE WESTERN: (10, 11, 12, 13, 19) Lateran, 1123, 1139, 1179, 1215, 1517; (14, 15) Synod of Lyon, 1245, 1274; (16) Synod of Vienne, in Dauphiné, 1311; (17) Constance, 1414; (18) Basil, 1431-1443;

(20) Trent, 1545-1563; (21) Vatican, 1869.

Of these, the Church of England recognises only the first six, viz.: 325 of Nice, against the Arians.

381 of Constantinople, against “heretics.”

431 of Ephesus, against the Nestorians and Pelagians.

451 of Chalcedon, when Athanasius was restored.

553 of Constantinople, against Origen.

680 of Constantinople, against the Monothelites (4 syl.).

Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894
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