(2 syl.). Holy wars in which the warriors wore a cross, and fought, nominally at least, for the honour of the cross. Each nation had its special colour, which, says Matthew Paris (i. 446), was red for France; white for England; green for Flanders; for Italy it was blue or azure; for Spain, gules; for Scotland, a St. Andrew's cross; for the Knights Templars, red on white.
(2) 1147-1149. At the instigation of St. Bernard. Led by Louis VII. and the Emperor Conrad. To secure the union of Europe.
(3) 1189-1193. Led by Richard Lionheart. For knightly distinction. This was against Saladin or
(4) 1202-1204. Led by Baldwin of Flanders and the doge. To glorify the Venetians.
(5) 1217. Led by John of Brienne, titular King of Jerusalem. To suit his own purpose.
(6) 1228-1229. Led by Frederick II. As a result, Palestine was ceded to Frederick (Kaiser of Germany), who was crowned king of Jerusalem.
(7) 1248-1254 and (8) 1268-1270. To satisfy the religious scruples of Louis IX.