E.guides Dinosaur

WHAT IS A DINOSAUR?
Giganotosaurus
Leg bones
Hip bones
Forelimbs
Skulls
THE BIRD CONNECTION
Similarities between Compsognathus and Archaeopteryx
Efficient hunter
Compsognathus skeleton
Flying dinosaur
Archaeopteryx skeleton
Modern bird
ERA OF THE DINOSAURS
Geological timescale
Triassic period: 250–200 million years ago
Jurassic period: 200–145 million years ago
Cretaceous period: 145–65 million years ago
UP IN THE AIR
Pterodactylus
Fossilized Pterodactylus features
Pterodactylus profile
Flamboyant heads
Pelican – the modern fish grabber
BELOW THE WAVES
Snake neck
Elasmosaurus
Jurassic shark
Ichthyosaurus
Fanged predator
Nothosaurus
Giant of the southern seas
Kronosaurus
Sea lizard
Tylosaurus
On the scent
DINOSAUR HABITATS
Triassic habitats (250–200 million years ago)
Jurassic habitats (200–145 mya)
Cretaceous habitats (145–65 mya)
THE END OF THE DINOSAURS
Impact crater
Death from space
Other dinosaur extinction theories
TURNING TO STONE
Fossil films
Petrified wood
Fossil casts
Perfect moulds
Survivor tooth
EARLY DISCOVERIES
Baffling bone
A new word is born
1822 Giant iguana
1824 First described
1853 First life-size models
1860 First bird
1878 First skeletons
1880s The bone wars
FOSSIL SITES
Distribution
United States
South America
Isle of Wight
Sahara Desert
Gobi Desert
Australia
Antarctica
IN THE FIELD
1 Preparing the site
2 Exposing the fossil
3 Mapping the site
4 Site map
5 Inner dressing
6 Plaster field jacket
BODY FOSSILS
Almost complete skeleton
Dinosaur tooth
Missing skull
Mummified dinosaurs
TRACE FOSSILS
Skin print
Footprints
Coprolites
EXAMINING FOOTPRINTS
Measuring trackways
Indicators of behaviour
Calculating dimensions
Comparing the stance of animals
Running and walking speeds
IN THE LAB
COMPUTER RECONSTRUCTION
Dinosaur on screen
Rebuilt in 3-D
DATING FOSSILS
Dating a dinosaur skeleton
Rock layers of a cliff face
Index fossils
Radiometric dating
RECONSTRUCTING THE PAST
Assembling the skeleton
Joining the neck
Welding the framework
Completed display
BIPEDAL CARNIVORES
Internal anatomy
External anatomy
Three-toed feet
Some theropods
LONG-NECKED HERBIVORES
Internal anatomy
External anatomy
Teeth for raking
Teeth for combing
Pillarlike legs
Prosauropods
BIPEDAL HERBIVORES
Internal anatomy
External anatomy
Toothless beak and cheek teeth
Herbivore teeth
Some bipedal herbivores
HORNED AND ARMOURED
Internal anatomy
External anatomy
Ceratopsian horns
Ankylosaur scutes
Stegosaur plates
Some armoured dinosaurs
MOVING ABOUT
Running style of an ostrich
How a Tyrannosaurus stood up
FEEDING
Tree-top browser
Balancing act
Low browser
Vegetarian mouths
Cretaceous food chain
DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS
Carnivore’s serrated tooth
Carnivore’s jaws for tearing
Carnivore’s stomach
Herbivore’s tooth
Stomach stones
Ornithopod’s stomach
Features of a sauropod’s stomach
ATTACK
Slashing claw
Chasing down prey
Death by poison
DEFENCE
Sprint from danger
Blending in
Club tail
Whip tail
Armoured jacket
WINNING A MATE
Head bangers
Five-horned face with frills
Rutting stags
Head crest for courting
BODY TEMPERATURE
Solar panels
Temperature control
Heat regulation
Ideal body temperature
Fuzzy raptor
BRAINS AND INTELLIGENCE
As smart as a cassowary?
Brain to body weight
Dinosaur brain power relative to a crocodile’s
SENSES
Making noises
Eye sockets
Binocular vision of modern animals
Binocular vision of the dinosaurs
Peripheral vision of modern animals
Peripheral vision of the dinosaurs
GROWING UP
Growth rings
Complete baby
Stages of growth
DEATH AND DISEASE
Deadly embrace
Cannibal
Cancerous growth
Life expectancy
PACK HUNTERS
Trapped in a quagmire
Family feasting
Tactics of modern hunters
HUNTER OR SCAVENGER?
Carnivore
Teeth
Awesome jaws
Stereoscopic eyesight
Leg muscles
Modern hunters and scavengers
Tyrannosaurus profile
Availability of food for scavenging
HERDING DINOSAURS
Bound for the arctic
Hazardous journeys
NESTING COLONIES
Family life
Hatching out
Nesting in colonies
Brooding Oviraptor
Fossilized mother and eggs
CHANGING FACES
Down from the trees
Fierce, but fluffy
Out of the swamp
DINOSAURS ON DISPLAY
The different functions of a museum
EVOLUTION
CLASSIFICATION
PROFILES
Acanthopholis “Spiny scales”
Albertosaurus “lizard from Alberta”
Allosaurus “different lizard”
Anchisaurus “near lizard”
Anhanguera “old devil”
Ankylosaurus “fused lizard”
Apatosaurus “deceptive lizard”
Archaeopteryx “ancient wing”
Barapasaurus “big leg”
Barosaurus “heavy lizard”
Baryonyx “heavy claw”
Brachiosaurus “armed lizard”
Brachylophosaurus “short-crested lizard”
Camarasaurus “chambered lizard”
Camptosaurus “flexible lizard”
Carcharodontosaurus “shark-toothed lizard”
Carnotaurus “flesh-eating”
Ceratosaurus “horned lizard”
Coelophysis “hollow form”
Compsognathus “pretty jaw”
Corythosaurus “helmet lizard”
Cryolophosaurus “frozen-crested lizard”
Deinonychus “terrible claw”
Diplodocus “double-beamed”
Dilophosaurus “two-ridge lizard”
Dromaeosaurus “running lizard”
Dryosaurus “Oak tree lizard”
Dsungaripterus “Junggar basin wing”
Edmontonia “from Edmonton”
Edmontosaurus “Edmonton lizard”
Elasmosaurus “thin-plated lizard”
Eoraptor “dawn raptor”
Euoplocephalus “well-armoured lizard”
Gallimimus “rooster mimic”
Gastonia “for Gaston”
Gigantosaurus “giant southern lizard”
Hadrosaurus “bulky lizard”
Herrerasaurus “Herrera’s lizard”
Heterodontosaurus “different-toothed lizard”
Hylaeosaurus “woodland lizard”
Hypsilophodon “high-crested tooth”
Ichthyosaurus “fish lizard”
Iguanodon “Iguana tooth”
Kronosaurus “Krono’s lizard”
Lambeosaurus “Lambe’s lizard”
Leaellynasaura “Leaellyn’s lizard”
Lesothosaurus “Lesotho lizard”
Maiasaura “good mother lizard”
Mamenchisaurus “Mamexi lizard”
Megalosaurus “great lizard”
Mussaurus “mouse lizard”
Nothosaurus “southern lizard”
Orodromeus “mountain runner”
Ouranosaurus “brave lizard”
Oviraptor “egg robber”
Pachycephalosaurus “thick-headed lizard”
Pachyrhinosaurus “thick-nosed lizard”
Parasauropholus “beside Sauropholus”
Pentaceratops “five-horned face”
Phuwiangosaurus “Phu Wiang lizard”
Plateosaurus “flat lizard”
Protoceratops “first-horned face”
Psittacosaurus “parrot lizard”
Pteranodon “winged and toothless”
Pterodactylus “winged finger”
Rhamphorhynchus “beak snout”
Saltasaurus “Salta Province lizard”
Scelidosaurus “limb lizard”
Seismosaurus “quake lizard”
Spinosaurus “spiny lizard”
Stegosaurus “roof lizard”
Styracosaurus “spiked lizard”
Suchomimus “crocodile mimic”
Thescelosaurus “wonderful lizard”
Titanosaurus “Titan lizard”
Triceratops “horrible three-horned face”
Troodon “wounding tooth”
Tropeognathus “keel jaw”
Tylosaurus “swollen lizard”
Tyrannosaurus “tyrant lizard”
Velociraptor “speedy thief”
Vulcanodon “vulcan tooth”
Xuanhanosaurus “Xuanhan County lizard”
BIOGRAPHIES
Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon 1707–1788
Georges Cuvier 1769–1832
Alexandre Brongniart 1770–1847
William Buckland 1784–1856
Gideon Mantell 1790–1852
Mary Anning 1799–1847
Richard Owen 1804–1892
Douglas Agassiz 1807–1873
Charles Darwin 1809-1882
Charles Othniel Marsh 1831-1899
Ernst Haeckel 1834-1919
William Parker Foulke d.1865
Edward Drinker Cope 1840–1897
Louis Dollo 1857–1931
Eugene Dubois 1858–1940
Eberhard Fraas 1862–1915
Ernst Stromer Von Reichenbach 1870–1952
Barnum Brown 1873–1963
William Beebe 1877–1962
Roy Chapman Andrews 1884–1960
Louis Leakey 1903–1972; Mary Leakey 1913–1996
Martin Glaessner 1906–1989
Luis Alvarez 1911–1988; Walter Alvarez b.1940
Elso Barghoorn b.1915
Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska b.1925
José F. Bonaparte b.1928
Rodolfo Coria (unknown)
Rinchen Barsbold b.1935
Dong Zhi-Ming b.1937
Peter Galton b.1942
Robert T. Bakker b.1945
Jennifer Clack b.1947
Sue Hendrickson b.1949
Philip J. Currie b.1949
Derek Briggs b.1950
Eric Buffetaut b.1950
Paul Sereno b.1957
Luis Chiappe b.1962
GLOSSARY
Copyright © 2007 Dorling Kindersley

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