Advertisement

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used in the text of The Columbia Encyclopedia

  • Å=angstrom
  • AA=Alcoholics Anonymous
  • AAA=Agricultural Adjustment Act; Agricultural Adjustment Administration; Agricultural Adjustment Agency
  • AAU=Amateur Athletic Union
  • A.B.=Artium Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Arts]
  • ABA=American Bar Association, American Basketball Association
  • abbr.=abbreviation(s), abbreviated
  • abr.=abridged
  • AC=alternating current
  • Acad.=Academy
  • ACLU=American Civil Liberties Union
  • A.D.=anno Domini [in the year of the Lord]
  • AEC=Atomic Energy Commission
  • AFL=American Federation of Labor
  • AFL-CIO=American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations
  • Afrik.=Afrikaans
  • AIA=American Institute of Architects
  • AKC=American Kennel Club
  • AL=American League (baseball)
  • ALA=American Library Association
  • Ala.=Alabama
  • alt.=altitude
  • Alta.=Alberta
  • A.M.=Artium Magister [Master of Arts]
  • A.M.=ante meridiem [before noon]
  • AM=amplitude modulation
  • AMA=American Medical Association
  • amp=ampere(s)
  • amp-hr=ampere-hour(s)
  • amu=atomic mass unit(s)
  • antilog=antilogarithm
  • AP=Associated Press
  • Arab.=Arabic
  • Ariz.=Arizona
  • Ark.=Arkansas
  • A.S.=Anglo-Saxon
  • ASCAP=American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers Assn.=Association
  • ASSR=Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
  • at. no.=atomic number
  • AT&T=American Telephone and Telegraph Company
  • at. wt.=atomic weight
  • AU=African Union; astronomical unit(s)
  • Aug.=August
  • AV=Authorized Version
  • avdp.=avoirdupois
  • Ave.=Avenue
  • b.=born, born in
  • B.A.=Bachelor of Arts
  • BBC=British Broadcasting Corporation
  • B.C.=before Christ
  • B.D.=Bachelor of Divinity
  • B.Lit.=Bachelor of Literature
  • B.Mus.=Bachelor of Music
  • b.p.=boiling point
  • Brig. Gen.=Brigadier General
  • B.S.=Bachelor of Science
  • Btu=British thermal unit(s)
  • Bul.=Bulletin
  • Bulg.=Bulgarian
  • C=Celsius (centigrade)
  • c.=circa [about]
  • cal=calorie(s)
  • Calif.=California
  • Cant.=Canticles (Song of Solomon)
  • Capt.=Captain
  • CARE=Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere
  • cc=cubic centimeter(s)
  • cd=candela(s)
  • cent.=century, centuries
  • CENTO=Central Treaty Organization
  • CEO=chief executive officer
  • cgs=centimeter-gram-second
  • Chem.E.=Chemical Engineering
  • Chin.=Chinese
  • Chron.=Chronicles
  • CIA=Central Intelligence Agency
  • CID=Criminal Investigation Department
  • CIO=Congress of Industrial Organizations
  • cm=centimeter(s)
  • cm/sec2=centimeter(s) per second per second
  • co.=county
  • Co.=County
  • Col.=Colonel, Colossians
  • Coll.=Collection
  • Colo.=Colorado
  • Comdr.=Commander
  • COMECON=Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
  • comp.=compiled, compiler
  • com. pop.=commune population
  • Comsat=Communications Satellite Corp.
  • Conn.=Connecticut
  • Cor.=Corinthians
  • CORE=Congress of Racial Equality
  • Corp.=Corporation
  • cos=cosine
  • cot=cotangent
  • coul=coulomb(s)
  • CPA=Certified Public Accountant
  • Cpl.=Corporal
  • CPO=Chief Petty Officer
  • csc=cosecant
  • cu=cubic
  • d.=died, died in
  • Dan.=Daniel; Danish
  • DAR=Daughters of the American Revolution
  • dB=decibel(s)
  • D.C.=District of Columbia
  • DC=direct current
  • D.C.L.=doctor of Civil Law
  • D.D.=Doctor of Divinity
  • D.D.S.=Doctor of Dental Surgery
  • DDT=dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  • Dec.=December
  • dec.=declination
  • Del.=Delaware
  • dept.=department
  • Deut.=Deuteronomy
  • dir.=directed, director
  • dist.=district
  • div.=division
  • DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Dr.=doctor
  • dr.=dram(s)
  • D.Sc.=Doctor of Science
  • Du.=Dutch
  • E=east
  • EC=European Community
  • ECA=Economic Cooperation Administration
  • Eccles.=Ecclesiastes
  • Ecclus.=Ecclesiasticus
  • ECSC=European Coal and Steel Community
  • ed.=edited, edition, editor(s)
  • EDC=European Defense Community
  • E.E.=Electrical Engineering
  • EEA=European Economic Area
  • EEC=European Economic Community
  • EFTA=European Free Trade Association
  • e.g.=exempli gratia [for example]
  • emf=electromotive force
  • emu=electromagnetic unit(s)
  • Eng.=English
  • enl.=enlarged
  • EEOC=Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • Eph.=Ephesians
  • ERA=Emergency Relief Administration; Equal Rights Amendment
  • ERP=European Recovery Program
  • ESC=Economic and Social Council (UN)
  • ESP=extrasensory perception
  • est.=established; estimated
  • et al.=et alii [and others]
  • EU=European Union
  • eV=electron volts
  • Ex.=Exodus
  • Ezek.=Ezekiel
  • F=Fahrenheit; farad
  • F=faces; force; formal
  • FAA=Federal Aviation Administration
  • fac.=facsimile
  • FAO=Food and Agriculture Organization
  • FBI=Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • FCC=Federal Communications Commission
  • FDA=Food and Drug Administration
  • Feb.=February
  • FEPC=Fair Employment Practices Committee
  • Finn.=Finnish
  • fl.=floruit [flourished]
  • Fla.=Florida
  • fl oz=fluid ounce(s)
  • FM=frequency modulation
  • Fr.=French
  • Ft.=Fort
  • ft=foot, feet
  • FTC=Federal Trade Commission
  • ft-lb=foot-pound(s)
  • G=gauss
  • Ga.=Georgia
  • Gal.=Galatians
  • gal.=gallon(s)
  • Gall.=Gallery
  • GATT=General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
  • GDP=gross domestic product
  • Gen.=General, Genesis
  • Ger.=German
  • GeV=billion electron volts
  • GHz=gigahertz
  • GMT=Greenwich mean time
  • GNP=gross national product
  • GOP=Grand Old Party (Republican Party)
  • Gov.=Governor
  • Gr.=Greek
  • grad.=graduated, graduated at
  • H=henry
  • h=hour
  • Hab.=Habakkuk
  • Hag.=Haggai
  • Heb.=Hebrew; Hebrews (NT)
  • H.M.S.=His (Her) Majesty's Ship; His (Her) Majesty's Service
  • Hon.=the Honorable
  • hp=horsepower
  • hr=hour(s)
  • Hung.=Hungarian
  • Hz=hertz or cycle(s) per second
  • IAU=International Astronomical Union
  • IBM=International Business Machines Corp.
  • IBT=International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen, and Helpers of America (Teamsters Union)
  • ICAO=International Civil Aviation Organization
  • ICBM=intercontinental ballistic missile
  • ICC=Interstate Commerce Commission
  • Icel.=Icelandic
  • i.e.=id est [that is]
  • IGY=International Geophysical Year
  • ILGWU=International Ladies Garment Workers Union
  • Ill.=Illinois
  • ILO=International Labor Organization
  • IMF=International Monetary Fund
  • in.=inch(es)
  • inc.=incorporated
  • Ind.=Indiana
  • Inst.=Institute, Institution
  • introd.=introduction
  • IQ=intelligence quotient
  • IRA=Individual Retirement Account; Irish Republican Army
  • IRBM=intermediate-range ballistic missile
  • IRS=Internal Revenue Service
  • Isa.=Isaiah
  • Ital.=Italian
  • ITU=International Telecommunications Union
  • IUPAC=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • IWW=Industrial Workers of the World
  • j=joule(s)
  • Jan.=January
  • Jap.=Japanese
  • J.D.=Juris Doctor [Doctor of Law]
  • Jer.=Jeremiah
  • jg=junior grade
  • Jr.=Junior
  • K=Kelvin
  • Kans.=Kansas
  • kc=kilocycle(s)
  • kg=kilogram(s)
  • KGB=Komityet Gosudarstvyennoy Byezopasnosti [Committee for State Security]
  • kgm=kilogram meter(s)
  • KKK=Ku Klux Klan
  • kl=kiloliter(s)
  • km=kilometer(s)
  • kW=kilowatt(s)
  • kWh=kilowatt hour(s)
  • Ky.=Kentucky
  • £=librae [pounds]
  • La.=Louisiana
  • Lam.=Lamentations
  • Lat.=Latin
  • lat.=latitude
  • lb=libra [pound], librae [pounds]
  • Lev.=Leviticus
  • L.H.D.=Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor [Doctor of Humane
  • Letters]
  • Lib.=Library
  • lim=limit
  • Lith.=Lithuanian
  • Litt.B.=Litterarum Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Literature]
  • Litt.D.=Litterarum Doctor [Doctor of Literature]
  • LL.B.=Legum Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Laws]
  • LL.D.=Legum Doctor [Doctor of Laws]
  • ln=logarithm, natural
  • log=logarithm
  • long.=longitude
  • LSD=lysergic acid diethylamide
  • Lt.=Lieutenant
  • Lt. Col.=Lieutenant Colonel
  • Ltd.=Limited
  • Lt. Gen.=Lieutenant General
  • Lt. Gov.=Lieutenant Governor
  • M=molar
  • m=meter(s)
  • m=molal
  • m=minute(s)
  • M.A.=Masters of Arts
  • Mac.=Maccabees
  • Maj. Gen.=Major General
  • Mal.=Malachi
  • Man.=Manitoba
  • Mass.=Massachusetts
  • mass no.=mass number
  • Mat.=Matthew
  • M.D.=Medicinae Doctor [Doctor of Medicine]
  • Md.=Maryland
  • M.E.=Mechanical Engineering; Middle English
  • MeV=million electron volts
  • Mex.=Mexican
  • mg=milligram(s)
  • M.H.G.=Middle High German
  • mi=mile(s)
  • Mich.=Michigan
  • min=minute(s)
  • Minn.=Minnesota
  • Miss.=Mississippi
  • mks=meter-kilogram-second
  • ml=milliliter(s)
  • Mlle=Mademoiselle [Miss]
  • mm=millimeter(s)
  • Mme=Madame [Mrs.]
  • Mo.=Missouri
  • Mont.=Montana
  • m.p.=melting point
  • M.P.A.=Master of Public Administration
  • mph=miles per hour
  • Mr.=Mister (always abbreviated)
  • Mrs.=Mistress (always abbreviated)
  • M.S.=Master of Science
  • MS, MSS=manuscript(s)
  • Ms.=variant of Miss or Mrs. that does not indicate marital status (not a true abbreviation)
  • m/sec2=meters per second per second
  • Msgr=Monsignor
  • mt.=mountain
  • Mt.=Mount, Mountain
  • mts.=mountains
  • Mts.=Mountains
  • Mus.=Museum
  • Mus.B.=Musicae Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Music]
  • Mus.D.=Musicae Doctor [Doctor of Music]
  • MW=megawatt(s)
  • N=north; Newton(s)
  • N=normal (unit of measure)
  • NAACP=National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  • NAFTA=North American Free Trade Agreement
  • NASA=National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Nasdaq=National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotations
  • NATO=North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • N.B.=New Brunswick
  • NBA=National Basketball Association
  • N.C.=North Carolina
  • NCAA=National Collegiate Athletic Association
  • NCO=Noncommissioned Officer
  • N.Dak.=North Dakota
  • NE=northeast
  • NEA=National Education Association
  • Nebr.=Nebraska
  • Neh.=Nehemiah
  • Nev.=Nevada
  • New Lat.=New Latin
  • NFL=National Football League
  • N.H.=New Hampshire
  • NHL=National Hockey League
  • N.J.=New Jersey
  • NL=National League (baseball)
  • N.L.=Newfoundland and Labrador
  • NLRB=National Labor Relations Board
  • N.Mex.=New Mexico
  • NNW=northwest
  • no.=numero [number]
  • Nor.=Norwegian
  • Nov.=November
  • NRA=National Recovery Administration
  • NRC=Nuclear Regulatory Commission
  • N.S.=New Style; Nova Scotia
  • NSF=National Science Foundation
  • Num.=Numbers
  • N.Y.=New York
  • NYA=National Youth Administration
  • NYSE=New York Stock Exchange
  • OAS=Organization of American States
  • Obad.=Obadiah
  • Oct.=October
  • O.E.=Old English
  • OECD=Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • OEO=Office of Economic Opportunity
  • OES=Office of Economic Stabilization
  • O.Fr.=Old French
  • O.H.G.=Old High German
  • Okla.=Oklahoma
  • O.N.=Old Norse
  • Ont.=Ontario
  • Op.=Opus [work]
  • OPA=Office of Price Administration
  • Oreg.=Oregon
  • O.S.=Old Style
  • OSCE=Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • OSS=Office of Strategic Services
  • oz=ounce(s)
  • Pa.=Pennsylvania
  • PAU=Pan American Union
  • Pd.D.=Pedagogiae Doctor [Doctor of Pedagogy]
  • P.E.I.=Prince Edward Island
  • Pers.=Persian
  • PFC=Private First Class
  • PGA=Professional Golfers Association
  • Ph.B.=Philosophiae Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Philosophy]
  • Ph.D.=Philosophiae Doctor [Doctor of Philosophy]
  • Philip.=Philippians
  • pl.=plural
  • PLC=public limited company
  • P.M.=post meridiem [afternoon]
  • PO=Petty Officer
  • Pol.=Polish
  • pop.=population
  • Port.=Portuguese
  • Pr. of Manas.=Prayer of Manasses
  • Prov.=Proverbs
  • prov(s).=province(s)
  • Ps.=Psalm
  • pseud.=pseudonym
  • Pss.=Psalms
  • pt.=part(s)
  • pt=pint(s)
  • pub.=published; publisher
  • Pvt.=Private
  • PWA=Public Works Administration
  • qt=quart(s)
  • Que.=Quebec
  • R=Roentgen
  • R.A.=right ascension
  • RAF=Royal Air Force
  • repr.=reprinted
  • Rev.=Revelation; the Reverend
  • rev.=revised
  • R.I.=Rhode Island
  • R.N.=registered nurse
  • RNA=ribonucleic acid
  • Rom.=Romanian, Romans
  • ROTC=Reserve Officers Training Corps
  • rpm=revolution(s) per minute
  • RR=railroad
  • RSFSR=Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
  • RSV=Revised Standard Version
  • Rt. Rev.=the Right Reverend
  • Rus.=Russian
  • RV=Revised Version
  • S=south
  • s=second(s)
  • Sam.=Samuel
  • Sask.=Saskatchewan
  • S.C.=South Carolina
  • Sc.D.=Scientiae Doctor [Doctor of Science]
  • S.Dak.=South Dakota
  • SE=southeast
  • SEATO=Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
  • SEC=Securities and Exchange Commission
  • sec=second(s); secant
  • Sept.=September
  • Ser.=Series
  • Sgt.=Sergeant
  • sin=sine
  • S.J.=Societas Jesu [Society of Jesus]
  • Skt.=Sanskrit
  • Song=Song of Solomon
  • SOS=distress signal (not a true abbreviation)
  • Span.=Spanish
  • SPCA=Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
  • SPCC=Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
  • sp. gr.=specific gravity
  • sq=square
  • Sr.=Senior
  • S.S.=Steamship
  • SSR=Soviet Socialist Republic
  • St.=Saint; Street
  • S.T.D.=Sacrae Theologiae Doctor [Doctor of Sacred
  • Theology]
  • Ste=Sainte [feminine of Saint]
  • STP=standard temperature and pressure
  • SW=southwest
  • Swed.=Swedish
  • tan=tangent
  • TASS=Telegraphnoye Agentstvo Sovyetskovo Soyuza [Soviet
  • News Agency]
  • Tenn.=Tennessee
  • Tex.=Texas
  • Thess.=Thessalonians
  • Tim.=Timothy
  • TNT=trinitrotoluene, trinitrototoluol
  • tr.=translated, translation, translator(s)
  • Turk.=Turkish
  • TVA=Tennessee Valley Authority
  • UAW=United Automobile Workers
  • UHF=ultrahigh frequency
  • Ukr.=Ukrainian
  • UMW=United Mine Workers
  • UN=United Nations
  • UNESCO=United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
  • Organization
  • UNICEF=United Nations Children's Fund
  • uninc.=unincorporated
  • Univ.=University
  • UNRRA=United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
  • UPI=United Press International
  • U.S.=United States
  • USA=United States Army
  • USAF=United States Air Force
  • USCG=United States Coast Guard
  • USMC=United States Marine Corps
  • USN=United States Navy
  • USO=United Service Organization
  • U.S.S.=United States Ship
  • USSR=Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • UT=universal time
  • V=volt(s)
  • v.=versus
  • VA=Department of Veterans Affairs; Veterans Administration
  • Va.=Virginia
  • var.=variety (in botany)
  • Ved.=Vedic
  • VFW=Veterans of Foreign Wars
  • VHF=very high frequency
  • VISTA=Volunteers in Service to America
  • vol.=volume(s)
  • vs.=versus
  • Vt.=Vermont
  • W=west; watt(s)
  • WAC=Women's Army Corps
  • Wash.=Washington
  • WAVES=Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service (United States
  • Women's Naval Reserve)
  • WCTU=Women's Christian Temperance Union
  • WEU=Western European Union
  • WFTU=World Federation of Trade Unions
  • WHO=World Health Organization
  • Wis.=Wisconsin
  • WMO=World Meteorological Organization
  • WPA=Work Projects Administration
  • wt.=weight
  • WTO=World Trade Organization
  • W.Va.=West Virginia
  • Wyo.=Wyoming
  • yd=yard(s)
  • YMCA=Young Men's Christian Association
  • YMHA=Young Men's Hebrew Association
  • YWCA=Young Women's Christian Association
  • YWHA=Young Women's Hebrew Association
  • Zech.=Zechariah
  • Zeph.=Zephaniah

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright 2012, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Advertisement

Play Hangman

Play Poptropica

Play Same Game

Try Our Math Flashcards