Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, founded 1895; the Cincinnati Orchestra (est. 1872) formed the nucleus of the orchestra. Since 1896 its concerts have been held in the 3,516-seat Springer Auditorium at the Music Hall (built 1878) in downtown Cincinnati. Conducted by Frank Van der Stucken from its founding until 1907, it was led by Leopold Stokowski from 1909 to 1912. Fritz Reiner was music director from 1922 to 1931 when he was succeeded by Eugene Goosens, who held the podium until 1947. Later conductors included Max Rudolf (1958–70), Thomas Schippers (1970–77), and Jesús López-Cobos (1986–2001). Paarvo Järva became music director in 2001. The orchestra also has a summer season and Pops concerts, conducted by Erich Kunzel since 1977, at Cincinnati's outdoor Riverbend Music Center.
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