Houston Symphony Orchestra. Founded in 1913 with 33 players, the orchestra reorganized in 1930 and presented its first full season of concerts in 1931. Among its important conductors have been Ernst Hoffman (1936–47), Efrem Kurtz (1948–54), Leopold Stokowski (1955–61), Sir John Barbirolli (1961–67), Sir André Previn (1967–69), Lawrence Foster (1970—78), Michael Palmer (1979–81), Sergiu Comissiona (1979–88), Christoph Eschenbach (1988–99), and Hans Graf (2000–). The permanent home of the symphony is the Jesse H. Jones Hall for the Performing Arts, which opened in 1966 as part of Houston's Civic Center. Summer performances take place at the Cynthia Woods Mitchell Pavilion and the Miller Outdoor Theatre.
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