For orchestra, see P. Hart, Orpheus in the New World: The Symphony Orchestra as an American Cultural Institution (1973); E. Prout, The Orchestra (2 vol., 1899, repr. 1988); P. Bekker, The Orchestra (1963). For orchestration, see K. Kennan, Technique of Orchestration (2d ed. 1970); N. Del Mar, Anatomy of the Orchestra (1982).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.