During the 19th cent. there was a revival of medieval Russian architecture. A romantic school of painting arose in the early years of the century, and pictorial epics were produced by Karl Briullov (1799–1852), F. A. Bruni (1800–1875), and A. A. Ivanov (1806–58). The second half of the 19th cent. saw the introduction of ideological realism, particularly in the works of V. G. Perov (1833–82) and I. Y. Repin, who is now hailed as one of the first artists of the revolution. Mikhail Vrubel (1856–1910), a tormented original and one of the foremost modern Russian masters, painted a remarkable series of decorations for the monastery of St. Cyril at Kiev.
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