Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of

Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of (brĕst-lĭtôfskˈ) [key], separate peace treaty in World War I, signed by Soviet Russia and the Central Powers, Mar. 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus). After the separate armistice of Dec. 5, 1917, long, bitter negotiations were conducted by Leon Trotsky for Russia, Richard von Kühlmann for Germany, and Count Ottokar Czernin for Austria-Hungary (the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria were also represented). Trotsky at one point suspended negotiations, but Germany resumed warfare and the Soviets—on the insistence of Lenin—accepted the German ultimatum, which set conditions even harsher than at first. Russia recognized the independence of Ukraine and Georgia; confirmed the independence of Finland; gave up Poland, the Baltic states, and part of what is now Belarus to Germany and Austria-Hungary; and ceded Kars, Ardahan, and Batum to the Ottomans. Later, Germany demanded a large indemnity. The general armistice of Nov. 11, 1918, forced Germany to renounce the treaty, and Russia also declared it null and void. The western frontiers of Russia were later agreed upon by a series of separate treaties.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

More on Brest-Litovsk Treaty of from Fact Monster:

  • Russia - Learn about the history, geography and culture of Russia and find statistical and demographic information|Information on Russia — geography, history, politics, government, economy, population statistics, culture, religion, languages, largest cities, as well as a map and the national flag.
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Early Years - Early Years The USSR was the successor state to the Russian Empire (see Russia) and the short-lived ...
  • Encyclopedia: Treaties and Alliances - Encyclopeadia articles concerning Treaties and Alliances.
  • Russian Revolution: The October Revolution of 1917 - The October Revolution of 1917 In Apr., 1917, Lenin and other revolutionaries returned to Russia ...

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Treaties and Alliances