despotism

despotism, government by an absolute ruler unchecked by effective constitutional limits to his power. In Greek usage, a despot was ruler of a household and master of its slaves. The title was applied to gods and, by derivation, to the quasi-divine rulers of the Middle East. In the Byzantine Empire, despot was a title of honor of the emperors and their relatives and of vassal princes of the tributary states and dignitaries of the Eastern Church. The Ottoman Empire perpetuated the term as applied to church officials and territorial princes. The 18th-century doctrine of the Enlightenment influenced such absolutist rulers as Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II toward a rule of beneficent intent known as benevolent despotism. However, despot is now a term of opprobrium.

See L. Krieger, ed., An Essay on the Theory of Enlightened Despotism (1975); K. A. Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power (1981); F. J. Maitland, The Theory of Despotism in Germany (1988).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

More on despotism from Fact Monster:

  • The World's Most Notorious Despots - The World's Most Notorious Despots by Borgna Brunner The Me Millennium Infoplease's top ten ...
  • despotate of Epirus - Epirus, despotate of. Epirus, despotate of. When, in 1204, the army of the Fourth Crusade set up ...
  • Antonio Guzmán Blanco - Guzmán Blanco, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, Antonio , 1829–99, president of ...
  • Cosimo III de' Medici - Medici, Cosimo III de' Medici, Cosimo III de', 1642–1723, grand duke of Tuscany ...
  • Hiero I - Hiero I Hiero I , 5th cent. B.C., Greek Sicilian ruler, tyrant of Syracuse (478–467 B.C.). He ...

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Political Science: Terms and Concepts