Eretria (ĕrēˈtrēə) [key], ancient city of Greece, in Euboea (now Évvoia), SE of Chalcis (now Khalkís), its rival. In the 7th and 6th cent. B.C., Eretria sent out many colonists to islands and coasts of the N Aegean. It supported (499 B.C.) the Ionian cities in the revolt against Persian control. In retaliation Darius I destroyed (490 B.C.) the city. Athens planted (c.445 B.C.) a colony there, which revolted in 411 with the rest of Euboea. Much later, after the second Delian League had been created, Eretria again revolted (349 B.C.). Excavations have uncovered the city walls, temple of Apollo, theater, and some public buildings.
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