The former EC, which formed the core of the EU, originally referred to the group of Western European nations that belonged to each of three treaty organizations—the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). In 1967 these organizations were consolidated under a comprehensive governing body composed of representatives from the member nations; further modifications since then have established the institutions of the EU as the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, and the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank (see European Monetary System), and the Court of Auditors.
Although the EU has no single seat of government, many of its most important offices are in Brussels, Belgium. The European Commission is headquartered there, as is the European Council and the Council of the European Union; it is also where the various committees of the European Parliament generally meet to prepare for the monthly sessions in Strasbourg, France. The European Central Bank is in Frankfurt, Germany; the Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors are in Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.