A. W. Tourgée's Fool's Errand (1879) and T. Dixon's Clansman (1905), on which D. W. Griffith based his film The Birth of a Nation, were two popular novels about the original Klan. For other works on the Reconstruction era Ku Klux Klan see A. W. Tourgée, The Invisible Empire (1880, repr. 1989); W. L. Fleming's edition (1905) of J. C. Lester and D. L. Wilson, Ku Klux Klan ; S. F. Horn, Invisible Empire: The Story of the Ku Klux Klan, 1866–1871 (1939, repr. 1973). The structure of the Klan after World War I is discussed in J. M. Mecklin, The Ku Klux Klan (1924), A. S. Rice, The Ku Klux Klan in American Politics (1962), N. MacLean, Behind the Mask of Chivalry (1994), K. J. Baker, Gospel According to the Klan (2011), and T. R. Pegram, One Hundred Percent American (2011). D. Lowe's Ku Klux Klan: The Invisible Empire (1967) and D. Cunningham's Klansville, U.S.A. (2012) deal with the final period of Klan activity, as do D. M. Chalmer's Hooded Americanism (1968) and W. C. Wade's The Fiery Cross (1987), which also discuss the first and second Klans.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.