Charles's successor, Ulrica Leonora, and her husband, Frederick I of Sweden, began peace negotiations. Peace was made with all enemies but Russia in the treaties of Stockholm and Frederiksborg (1719–20). Augustus II of Poland restored all his conquests; Hanover retained the duchies of Bremen and Verden, but paid a large indemnity; Prussia received Stettin and part of W Pomerania, the rest reverting to Sweden; Denmark restored its conquests for a payment, but Sweden permitted the union of ducal Schleswig with royal Schleswig under the Danish crown and renounced Swedish exemption from customs duties in the Sound. By the Treaty of Nystad with Russia (1721) Sweden ceded Livonia (including Estonia), part of Karelia, and Ingermanland, but retained Finland. The lasting results of the Northern War were the waning of Swedish power, the establishment of Russia as a major power of Europe, with its "window" on the Baltic Sea, and the decay of Poland.
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