Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, SE Africa, 1953–63, composed of the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The capital was Salisbury (now Harare), Southern Rhodesia. The federation, also called the Central African Federation, was formed on Britain's initiative. Under an appointed governor-general, the federal government handled external affairs, defense, currency, intercolonial relations, and federal taxes for its constituent members, which, however, retained most of their former legislative structure. The Africans, fearing continued domination by the whites, demonstrated (1960–61) against the federation, and in 1962 there was a strong movement for its dissolution, particularly from the new African-dominated regime of Northern Rhodesia. Official dissolution came on Dec. 31, 1963, after which Northern Rhodesia became independent as Zambia and Nyasaland as Malawi. Southern Rhodesia refused to hand political control over to its African majority, and in 1965 the white government unilaterally proclaimed the colony's independence from Britain as Rhodesia. In 1980, Rhodesia formally became independent as Zimbabwe.
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