See B. E. Schmitt, The Coming of the War, 1914 (1930, repr. 1966); W. L. Langer, European Alliances and Alignments, 1871–1890 (2d ed. 1950, repr. 1964) and The Diplomacy of Imperialism, 1890–1902 (2d ed. 1951, repr. 1965); L. Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, Vol. I (tr. 1952); A. J. P. Taylor, The Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848–1918 (1954, repr. 1971); S. B. Fay, The Origins of the World War (2d ed. 1966).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.