Verdun, Treaty of, the partition of Charlemagne's empire among three sons of Louis I, emperor of the West. It was concluded in 843 at Verdun on the Meuse or, possibly, Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, Soâne-et-Loire dept., E France. Louis the German received the eastern portion (later Germany); Charles II (Charles the Bald) became king of the western portion (later France); Lothair I received the central portion (Low Countries, Lorraine, Alsace, Burgundy, Provence, and most of Italy) and also kept the imperial title. The Treaty of Verdun represented the beginning of dissolution of Charlemagne's empire into political units that foreshadowed the nations of Western Europe. It was superseded in 870 by the Treaty of Mersen.
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