Abd al-Hamid I (äbˌdäl-hämēdˈ) [key] or Abdülhamit Turk. äbdülˈhämēdˈ, 1725–89, Ottoman sultan (1774–89), brother and successor of Mustafa III. His reign, one of decline for the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), saw the end of the war of 1768–74 and the beginning of the war of 1787–91 with Catherine II of Russia (see Russo-Turkish Wars). The peace terms in 1774 (see Kuchuk Kainarji, Treaty of) established Russia as the foremost power in the Middle East and had incalculable effects. In 1775, Austria, jealous of Russian expansion, forced the Turks to cede Bukovina. Abd al-Hamid was succeeded by his nephew, Selim III.
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