Antoine, André (äNdrāˈ äNtwänˈ) [key], 1858–1943, French theatrical director, manager, and critic. In opposition to the teachings of the Paris Conservatory, he formed (1887) his own company, the Théâtre Libre. There he presented, by private subscriptions, foremost works of the naturalistic school. He emphasized an intimate style of acting and a realistic use of space and tried to eliminate grand posturing. Financial failure forced him to relinquish the theater (1894). In 1897 he founded the Théâtre Antoine, where he continued the tradition of his Théâtre Libre for 10 years. He was director (1906–14) of the Odéon in Paris and after World War I became a respected drama critic.
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