Bergman, Torbern Olof (tŏrˈbərn ōˈlôv bĕrˈyəmän) [key], 1735–84, Swedish chemist, physicist, and mineralogist. A professor at the Univ. of Uppsala from 1758, he developed a theory of chemical affinity, made improvements in the methods of chemical analysis and in the classification of rocks, and did important research in crystallography. He wrote A Dissertation on Elective Attractions (1775, tr. 1785). His collected works, Essays, Physical and Chemical, appeared in six volumes (1779–81, tr. 1791).
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