Berthelot, Pierre Eugène Marcelin (pyĕr ûzhĕnˈ märsəlăNˈ bĕrtəlōˈ) [key], 1827–1907, French chemist. He was professor at the École Supérieure de Pharmacie (1859) and at the Collège de France from 1865. In 1900 he became a member of the French Academy. A founder of modern organic chemistry, he was one of the first to produce organic compounds synthetically (including the carbon compounds methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, benzene, and acetylene), playing a major role in dispelling the old theory of a vital force inherent in organic compounds. He also did valuable work in thermochemistry and in explosives. His writings include Chimie organique fondée sur la synthèse (1860) and Leçons sur la thermochimie (1897).
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