The house of Bourbon-Parma was established (1748) in the duchy of Parma and Piacenza by Philip, a younger son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth Farnese of Parma. Robert, fifth duke of the line, was deposed in 1859. Among his numerous children were Empress Zita of Austria, Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma, and Prince René, who married Princess Margaret of Denmark. René's and Margaret's daughter, Anne, married (1948) Michael of Romania.
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