Callias (kălˈēəs) [key], fl. 449 B.C., Athenian statesman; he was related to Cimon and also to Aristides. He distinguished himself at the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) and was a three-time winner of the Olympic chariot races. Callias was sent to Susa to negotiate for peace c.449 B.C. The result of his work was an agreement usually called the Peace of Callias (or Treaty of Callias); by it Artaxerxes I agreed to respect the independence of the Delian League and its members and to send no warships into Greek waters; in return Athens agreed not to interfere with Persian "influence" in Asia Minor, Cyprus, and Egypt. There is doubt that such a treaty was actually ever drawn up; however, peace did exist between Persia and the cities of Greece until the end of the century. According to ancient historians, when Callias returned to Athens he was fined 50 talents for betraying the city. Callias was also supposed to have been one of the negotiators of a treaty between Athens and Sparta (446–445 B.C.) that resulted in 30 years of peace.
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