Calmette, Léon Charles Albert (lāôNˈ shärl älbĕrˈ kälmĕtˈ) [key], 1863–1933, French physician and bacteriologist. He was founder and director of the Pasteur institutes at Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) and at Lille. From 1917 he was affiliated with the Pasteur Institute in Paris. He discovered a serum for snake bite, studied bubonic plague at Oporto, and with Alphonse Guérin introduced BCG, a tuberculosis vaccine. He wrote Recherches expérimentales sur la tuberculose (1907–14), Tuberculose chez l'homme et chez les animaux (1920; tr. 1923), and La Vaccination préventive … par le BCG (1927).
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