Cardwell, Edward Cardwell, Viscount, 1813–86, British statesman. He entered Parliament (1842) as a supporter of Sir Robert Peel, under whom he was secretary to the treasury (1845–46). He was president of the Board of Trade (1852–55) under Lord Aberdeen and secretary for Ireland (1859–61) and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster (1861–64) under Lord Palmerston. While colonial secretary (1864–66) he worked toward federation in Canada. As war secretary (1868–74) under Gladstone, he reformed the British army, abolishing the purchase of commissions, shortening the term of enlistment, and creating a reserve.
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