Castracani, Castruccio (kästrōtˈchō kästräkäˈnē) [key], 1281–1328, duke of Lucca. His early life was spent in exile. After his return he was made captain (1316), then lord of Lucca (1320) for life. In the political wars that plagued Italy in the 14th cent. he led the Ghibellines of all Tuscany (see Guelphs and Ghibellines), waged long wars against Florence, and conquered Volterra, Pistoia, and the Lunigiana. In 1327, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV recognized him as duke of Lucca. After quelling a rebellion in Pistoia, he died. His principality disappeared with him.