Chaptal, Jean Antoine (zhäN äNtwänˈ shäptälˈ) [key], 1756–1832, French chemist, industrialist, and statesman. He became (1781) professor of chemistry at Montpellier, and during the Revolution he was active in gunpowder production. Later, as minister of the interior (1801–9) and director-general of commerce and manufactures (1815) under Napoleon I, he introduced far-reaching reforms in medicine, industry, and public works. Chaptal's writings pioneered in the application of chemical principles to industrial processes.
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