Charles of Valois (välwäˈ) [key], 1270–1325, French prince and military leader, third son of Philip III and father of Philip VI. He dominated the reign in France of his nephew Louis X. On the excommunication (1284) of Peter III of Aragón, Pope Martin IV made Charles of Valois king of Aragón and Sicily. Charles, however, was defeated and in 1290 renounced his claim. In return he received Anjou and Maine as part of the dowry of his first wife (the daughter of Charles II of Naples). Later he unsuccessfully sought to obtain the crowns of the Byzantine and Holy Roman empires, which he held claim to through his second wife. At different times he also tried to secure the crowns of Arles and France, where he hoped to be regent after the death of Louis X. He campaigned for Pope Boniface VIII in Italy and took Florence in 1301.