John Dalton

Dalton, John (dôlˈtən) [key], 1766–1844, English scientist. He revived the atomic theory (see atom), which he formulated in the first volume of his New System of Chemical Philosophy (2 vol., 1808–27). He had already applied the concept to a table of atomic weights (1803), in a paper (1805) on the absorption of gases, and in developing his famous law of partial pressures, known also as Dalton's law. His interest in weather conditions led him to keep daily records from 1787 and to write Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793). Dalton, himself afflicted with color blindness, investigated (c.1794) the condition, known also as Daltonism. From 1793 he taught mathematics and physical sciences at New College, Manchester. He was a member of the Royal Society (from 1822) and in 1825 received its medal for his work on the atomic theory.

See study by A. Thackray (1972).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

More on John Dalton from Fact Monster:

  • John Dalton - Biography of John Dalton, The weather pioneer who advocated atomic theory
  • Dalton's law - Dalton's law Dalton's law [for John Dalton], physical law that states that the total ...
  • William Higgins - Higgins, William Higgins, William, b. 1762 or 1763, d. 1825, Irish chemist. After study at Oxford ...
  • combining weight - combining weight combining weight, the proportion (by weight) in which a chemical element combines ...
  • ELEMENTS - The enormous variety of matter around you is made from different combinations of substances called elements. Elements are pure substances that cannot

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Chemistry: Biographies

Play Hangman

Play Poptropica

Play Quizzes

Play Tic Tac Toe