Emmanuel Philibert (āmänˈwĕl fēlēbĕrˈ) [key], 1528–80, duke of Savoy (1553–80), called Ironhead. He succeeded his father, Charles III, who had been dispossessed of his duchy by Francis I of France and the Swiss in 1536. Emmanuel Philibert entered the service of Charles V, Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain, and later served Philip II of Spain. As Philip's lieutenant general in Flanders he won a brilliant victory over the French at Saint-Quentin (1557) and captured the French commander, Anne de Montmorency. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) restored most of Savoy (except Vaud and Geneva, which remained Swiss) to Emmanuel Philibert, who in the same year married Margaret of Valois, sister of Henry II of France. Savoy was in deplorable condition. The duke, with great energy and wisdom, reorganized its courts, finances, educational system, industry, and commerce. He also reformed the army, substituting local militias for mercenaries. His skillful diplomacy rid Savoy of the French and Spanish garrisons and secured peaceful relations with the Swiss. Toward the Waldenses he displayed tolerance. By making Turin his capital, he shifted the center of his duchy from Savoy proper to Piedmont, thus making it an Italian rather than a French state. He was succeeded by his son, Charles Emmanuel I.
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