Gallieni, Joseph Simon (zhôzĕfˈ sēmôNˈ gälyānēˈ) [key], 1849–1916, French general and colonial administrator. He served well in the Sudan and Tonkin and, as governor-general (1896–1905), solidly established French administration in Madagascar. Called from retirement in World War I, he served as military governor of Paris and was the crucial figure in the French victory of the Marne (1914). Although credit for the victory went to General Joffre as commander, it seems clear that it was Gallieni who saw the opportunity for counterattack and urged Joffre into action. Gallieni later became (1915) minister of war under Aristide Briand and demanded reorganization of the command and more complete preparation for war. The cabinet refused, and he resigned (1916) on a plea of ill health, dying within the year. His proposals were implemented after his death; in 1921 he was made a marshal posthumously. Gallieni wrote several books on colonial affairs.
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