Garnier, Marie Joseph François (märēˈ zhôzĕfˈ fräNswäˈ gärnyāˈ) [key], 1839–73, French explorer and naval officer, usually known as Francis Garnier. He served (1860–62) against Annam and China, then in the administration of Cochin China. In 1866–68 he accompanied Doudart de Lagrée's expedition through Cambodia, Laos, and Yunnan. The route followed, largely unknown to European geographers, was accurately mapped. On the death of the leader en route, Garnier led the party down the Chang (Yangtze) River to Shanghai. After taking part in the defense of Paris against the Prussians (1870–71), which he described in Le Siège de Paris (1871), he returned to East Asia. In the Tonkin expedition of 1873 he captured Hanoi but was killed there. He wrote Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine (1873).
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