Geddes, Sir Patrick (gĕdˈĭs) [key], 1854–1932, Scottish biologist and sociologist, distinguished especially in town planning. He received his biological training in T. H. Huxley's laboratory; from the beginning he was interested in relating biological knowledge to civic welfare. His conviction of the importance of environment led to the organization of University Hall in Edinburgh as a center of student life and to his plan for the reconstruction of Edinburgh, with the eventual elimination of slums. He was selected by Zionist leaders to design the Hebrew Univ. building at Jerusalem and to plan the enlargement of the city. In biology, Geddes was an authority on the evolution of sex, collaborating with Sir J. Arthur Thomson in several works on the subject. Other books by Geddes include City Development (1904) and Cities in Evolution (1915). Geddes held professorships at Edinburgh, London, Aberdeen, St. Andrews, and Bombay (now Mumbai) and at his death was director of the Scots College, Montpellier, France. He was knighted in 1932.
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