The family was founded as a cadet branch of the ruling house of Lorraine by Claude de Lorraine, 1st duc de Guise, 1496–1550, who received the French fiefs of his father, René II, duke of Lorraine and Bar. In 1513 Claude connected himself by marriage with the French royal family. He fought in the Italian Wars under King Francis I and was wounded (1515) at Marignano; as governor of Champagne he fought successfully against the English and the imperial troops. He was created a duke and peer by Francis I, who, however, ultimately came to regard him with distrust. Claude's daughter, Mary of Guise, married King James V of Scotland and was the mother of Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart).
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