Hayes, Carlton Joseph Huntley, 1882–1964, American historian and diplomat, b. Afton, N.Y. He began teaching history at Columbia in 1907, and from 1935 to his retirement in 1950 he held the Seth Low chair of history. He was noted for his studies in nationalism, including the Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism (1931). Hayes was U.S. ambassador to Spain from May, 1942, to Mar., 1945, a period recorded in his Wartime Mission in Spain, 1942–1945 (1945). Though some criticized him as being too friendly with Franco, it was generally held that he played an important role in preventing an outright Spanish alliance with the Axis in World War II. A convert to Roman Catholicism, Hayes became a leading Catholic layman and was long cochairman (1925–45) of the National Conference of Christians and Jews.
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