See his letters, ed. by C. Baker (1989), by M. J. Bruccoli (1996), and by S. Spanier and R. W. Trogdon (2 vol., 2011–); biographies by C. Baker (1969, rev. ed. 1980), J. Meyers (1986), M. S. Reynolds (5 vol. 1987–99), K. Lynn (1988), and J. R. Mellow (1993); P. Hendrickson's biographical Hemingway's Boat: Everything He Loved in Life, and Lost, 1934–1961 (2011); B. Vejdovsky and M. Hemingway, Hemingway: A Life in Pictures (2011); P. Young, Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration (rev. ed. 1966); C. Baker, Hemingway, the Writer as Artist (4th ed. 1972), H. S. Villard and J. Nagel, Hemingway in Love and War (1989), and J. McLendon, Papa (1990); M. S. Reynolds, Hemingway: An Annotated Chronology (1991).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.