Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo, Alexandre (əlēshäNˈdrə ərkōläˈnŏ ħĭ kərväˈlyŏ ĕ ərouˈzhŏ) [key], 1810–77, Portuguese historian. One of the outstanding thinkers of his time, he is considered the first modern Portuguese historian. His great four-volume history of Portugal (1846–53) is notable for its treatment of feudal institutions and of social conditions. He is also known for his history of the Inquisition in Portugal (tr. 1926, repr. 1972).
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