Hill, Archibald Vivian, 1886–1977, British physiologist, B.A. Cambridge, 1909. Hill was a professor at Manchester Univ. (1920–23) and University College, London (1923–25) before becoming a research professor of the Royal Society (1926–51). Hill discovered how heat is produced in muscle. While much previous research had focused on the mechanical response and characteristics of muscles, Hill showed that thermal changes are associated with muscle function. By demonstrating that oxygen is involved in only the recovery stage of muscle activity, he laid the foundation for understanding the biochemical reactions that result in muscle contraction. He shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Otto Fritz Meyerhof for his work.
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