Hood, John Bell, 1831–79, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Owingsville, Ky. He resigned from the army (Apr., 1861) and entered the Confederate service 1862. He fought in the Peninsular campaign and at the second battle of Bull Run (Aug., 1862) and was promoted to the rank of major general in October. As a division commander under James Longstreet, he distinguished himself at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg and at Chickamauga, where he won his lieutenant generalcy (Sept., 1863). In the Atlanta campaign of 1864 he fought under Joseph E. Johnston until Jefferson Davis, displeased with that general's retreat, made Hood commander. Hood, faring no better against General Sherman, was obliged to abandon Atlanta on Sept. 1. To prevent a further Union advance Hood moved against Sherman's long line of communications. Sherman followed, but later, satisfied that George H. Thomas at Nashville could cope with Hood, returned to Atlanta and marched to the sea. Hood then began to advance through Tennessee. John M. Schofield slowly withdrew before him, repulsing his attack in a bloody battle at Franklin (Nov. 30) before joining Thomas. In the battle of Nashville (Dec. 15–16), Thomas won the most complete victory of the war, virtually annihilating the Confederates. Hood resigned his command (Jan., 1865) and surrendered at Natchez, Miss., in May.
See his Advance and Retreat (1879, new ed. 1959, repr. 1969); S. F. Horn, The Army of Tennessee (1941, repr. 1959); biographies by R. O'Connor (1949, repr. 1959) and J. P. Dyer (1950).