Joanna I

Joanna I, 1326–82, queen of Naples (1343–81), countess of Provence. She was the granddaughter of King Robert of Naples, whom she succeeded with her husband, Andrew of Hungary. The murder (1345) of Andrew at the queen's behest brought the wrath of Andrew's brother, Louis I of Hungary. Louis twice invaded Naples; each time Joanna fled, and in 1352 she made peace with Hungary. Joanna married twice more but remained childless and adopted young Charles of Durazzo (later Charles III of Naples) as her heir. When Pope Urban VI, angered by Joanna's support of the antipope Clement VII, urged Charles to dethrone her, she disinherited Charles in favor of Louis of Anjou (see Louis I, king of Naples). Charles conquered (1381) Naples, imprisoned the queen, and was granted the kingdom by the pope. Joanna died by Charles's orders. Her successive adoptions caused chronic warfare between the two claimants (continued by their heirs); thus began the decline of French hegemony in Italy.

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