Johanan ben Zakkai (jōhănˈən bĕn zăkˈāĪ) [key], leader of the Pharisees of Jerusalem before the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70, afterward founder of the Jewish academy at Jamnia. He emphasized the study of the Torah as the primary religious duty for which humankind was created. After A.D. 70 he taught that deeds of loving kindness might replace sacrifice in achieving atonement.
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