John of Austria, 1629–79, Spanish general and statesman; illegitimate son of Philip IV. He helped put down Masaniello's revolt (1647) in Naples, was viceroy of Sicily (1648–51), and fought (1651–52) against the rebels in Catalonia. In 1656, while France was at war with Spain (see Fronde), he was appointed governor of the Spanish Netherlands. He was defeated by Turenne at the battle of the Dunes (1658) and recalled. His campaign (1661–64) for the reconquest of Portugal also failed. During the minority of Charles II, he overthrew the regency of the queen-mother Mariana and seized power (1677). His government lost Franche-Comté to France by the peace of Nijmegen (1678).