Johnson, Boris (Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson), 1964–, British politician, b. New York City, grad. Oxford (1986). While at Oxford Johnson was president of the prestigious Oxford Union debating society. He worked as a journalist, becoming editor of The Spectator (1999–2005). Boyish, outspoken, and sometimes controversial, he was elected to Parliament as a Conservative in 2001 and 2005. He was elected mayor of London in 2008, defeating incumbent Ken Livingstone, and defeated Livingstone again in 2012. Johnson has written several books, including Friends, Voters, Countrymen (2001), Lend Me Your Ears (2003), a novel, Seventy-Two Virgins (2004), The Dream of Rome (2006), and Johnson's Life of London (2011).